Tierra del Fuego (Good Success Bay)
The Captain sent a boat with a large party of officers to communicate with the Fuegians. As soon as the boat came within hail, one, of the four men who advanced to receive us, began to shout most vehemently, & at the same time pointed out a good landing place. — The women & children had all disappeared. — When we landed the party looked rather alarmed, but continued talking & making gestures with great rapidity. — It was without exception the most curious & interesting spectacle I ever beheld. — I would not have believed how entire the difference between savage & civilized man is. — It is greater than between a wild & domesticated animal, in as much as in man there is greater power of improvement. — The chief spokesman was old & appeared to be head of the family; the three others were young powerful men & about 6 feet high. — From their dress &c &c they resembled the representations of Devils on the Stage, for instance in Der Frieschutz. — The old man what had a white feather cap; from under which, black long hair hung round his face. — The skin is dirty copper colour. Reaching from ear to ear & including the upper lip, there was a broard red coloured band of paint. — & parallel to & above this, there was a white one; so that the eyebrows & eyelids were even thus coloured; the only garment was a large guanaco skin, with the hair outside. — This was merely thrown over their shoulders, one arm & leg being bare; for any exercise they must be absolutely naked. — Their very attitudes were abject, & the expression distrustful, surprised & startled: — Having given them some red cloth, which they immediately placed round their necks, we became good friends. — This was shown by the old man patting our breasts & making something like the same noise which people do when feeding chickens. — I walked with the old man & this demonstration was repeated between us several times: at last he gave me three hard slaps on the breast & back at the same time, & making most curious noises. — He then bared his bosom for me to return the compliment, which being done, he seemed highly pleased: — Their language does not deserve to be called articulate: Capt. Cook says it is like a man clearing his throat; to which may be added another very hoarse man trying to shout & a third encouraging a horse with that peculiar noise which is made in one side of the mouth. — Imagine these sounds & a few gutterals mingled with them, & there will be as near an approximation to their language as any European may expect to obtain. — Their chief anxiety was obtain knives; this they showed by pretending to have blubber in their mouths, & cutting instead of tearing it from the body, — they called them in a continued plaintive tone Cochilla, — probably a corruption from a Spanish word. — They are excellent mimics, if you cough or yawn or make any odd motion they immediately imitate you. — Some of the officers began to squint & make monkey like faces; — but one of the young men, whose face was painted black with white band over his eyes was most successful in making still more hideous grimaces. — When a song was struck up, I thought they would have fallen down with astonishment; & with equal delight they viewed our dancing and immediately began themselves to waltz with one of the officers. — They knew what guns were & much dreaded them, & nothing would tempt them to take one in their hands. — Jemmy Button came in the boat with us; it was interesting to watch their conduct to him. — They immediately perceived the difference & held much conversation between themselves on the subject. — The old man then began a long harangue to Jemmy; who said it was inviting him to stay with them: — but the language is rather different & Jemmy could not talk to them. — If their dress & appearance is miserable, their manner of living is still more so. — Their food chiefly consists in limpets & muscles, together with seals & a few birds; they must also catch occasionally a Guanaco. They seem to have no property excepting bows & arrows & spears: their present residence is under a few bushes by a ledge of rock: it is no ways sufficient to keep out rain or wind. — & now in the middle of summer it daily rains & as yet each day there has been some sleet. — The almost impenetrable wood reaches down to high water mark, — so that the habitable land is literally reduced to the large stones on the beach. — & here at low water, whether it may be night or day, these wretched looking beings pick up a livelihood. — I believe if the world was searched, no lower grade of man could be found. — The Southsea Islanders are civilized compared to them, & the Esquimaux, in subterranean huts may enjoy some of the comforts of life.
After dinner the Captain paid the Fuegians another visit. — They received us with less distrust & brought with them their timid children. — They noticed York Minster (who accompanied us) in the same manner as Jemmy, & told him he ought to shave, & yet he has not 20 hairs in his face, whilst we all wear our untrimmed beards. — They examined the color of his skin; & having done so, they looked at ours. — An arm being bared, they expressed the liveliest surprise & admiration. — Their whole conduct was such an odd mixture of astonishment & imitation, that nothing could be more laughable & interesting. — The tallest man was pleased with being examined & compared with a tall sea-man, in doing this he tried his best to get on rather higher ground & to stand on tip-toes: He opened his mouth to show his teeth & turned his face en profil; for the rest of his days doubtless he will be the beau ideal of his tribe. — Two or three of the officers, who are both fairer & shorter than the others (although possessed of large beards) were, we think, taken for Ladies. — I wish, they would follow our supposed example & produce their "squaws". — In the evening we parted very good friends; which I think was fortunate, for the dancing & "sky-larking" had occassionally bordered on a trial of strength.
Captain Fitzroy’s Journal:
18th. Mr. Darwin, Mr. Hamond (ship’s Mate) and others, went with me to the natives who had so vociferously greeted our arrival; and deeply indeed was I interested by witnessing the effect caused in their minds by this first meeting with man in such a totally savage state.
There were five or six stout men, half-clothed in guanaco-skins, almost like the Patagonians in aspect and stature, being near six feet high, and confident in demeanour. They scarcely bore resemblance to the Fuegians, except in colour and class of features. I can never forget Mr. Hamond's earnest expression, "What a pity such fine fellows should be left in such a barbarous state!" It told me that a desire to benefit these ignorant, though by no means contemptible human beings, was a natural emotion, and not the effect of individual caprice or erroneous enthusiasm; and that his feelings were exactly in unison with those I had experienced on former occasions, which had led to my undertaking the heavy charge of those Fuegians whom I brought to England.
Disagreeable, indeed painful, as is even the mental contemplation of a savage, and unwilling as we may be to consider ourselves even remotely descended from human beings in such a state, the reflection that Cæsar found the Britons painted and clothed in skins, like these Fuegians, cannot fail to augment an interest excited by their childish ignorance of matters familiar to civilized man, and by their healthy, independent state of existence. One of these men was just six feet high, and stout in proportion; the others were rather shorter: their legs were straight and well formed, not cramped and misshapen, like those of the natives who go about in canoes; and their bodies were rounded and smooth. They expressed satisfaction or good-will by rubbing or patting their own, and then our bodies; and were highly pleased by the antics of a man belonging to the boat's crew, who danced well and was a good mimic. One of the Fuegians was so like York Minster, that he might well have passed for his brother. He asked eagerly for "cuchillo." About his eyes were circles of white paint, and his upper lip was daubed with red ochre and oil. Another man was rubbed over with black. They were (apparently) very good-humoured, talked and played with the younger ones of our party, danced, stood up back to back with our tallest men to compare heights, and began to try their strength in wrestling—but this I stopped. It was amusing and interesting to see their meeting with York and Jemmy, who would not acknowledge them as countrymen, but laughed at and mocked them. It was evident that both of our Fuegians understood much of the language in which the others talked; but they would not try to interpret, alleging that they did not know enough. York betrayed this by bursting into an immoderate fit of laughter at something the oldest man told him, which he could not resist telling us was, that the old man said he was dirty, and ought to pull out his beard. Now, if their language differed much from that of York Minster, or was indeed other than a dialect of the same original, it is not probable that York could have understood the old man's meaning so readily when he spoke quietly, without signs.
Richard Matthews (Missionary) was with us, but did not appear to be at all discouraged by a close inspection of these natives. He remarked to me, that "they were no worse than he had supposed them to be."